Escape sequences

Escape sequence is a sequence of backslash \ followed by one or more characters. They are used to represent some of the special characters in a strings and regular expressions.

Common escape sequences

  • \' - single quote
  • \" - double quote
  • \\ - backslash
  • \b - backspace
  • \f - form feed
  • \n - line feed
  • \r - carriage return
  • \t - horizontal tab
  • \v - vertical tab
  • \0 - NULL character

Hexadecimal escape sequences

Some characters can be escaped using hexadecimal notation. These are the characters in the ASCII range (0-255). The hexadecimal escape sequences are in the \xnn format where nn is a two-digit hexadecimal number.

Unicode escape sequences

There are two formats of the Unicode escape sequences.

  • \unnnn - UTF-16 with four hexadecimal digits nnnn
  • \u{nnnn} ~ \u{nnnnn} - Unicode with four or five hexadecimal digits nnnn

A full table of Unicode characters can be found on